Observations on the nature of Light.

To cite this paper – Bernard Mulholland, ‘Observations on the nature of light’, Wissenschaft, 79, 2022, pp. 14-15. Published by British Mensa Ltd.

            The wave-particle theory for the propagation of light holds that light acts both as a particle, similar to how a bullet acts, and at the same time has a wave structure, not dissimilar to ocean waves. Central to this theory is that the speed of light c in the vacuum of space is constant at 300,000 km/sec. In simple terms, to accommodate these disparate factors the concept of red shift and blue shift have been introduced, i.e. where a star or galaxy is rapidly travelling away from us the wavelength of light is stretched to create a red shift, and where a star or galaxy travels towards us at speed the wavelength of light is compressed as blue shift. The rationale is that for the speed of light c to remain constant under these circumstances the wavelength of light must change.

            There is a demonstrable problem with this construct, and it can perhaps be best explained by this table top experiment. On a kitchen table place a laser pen such that the beam of light x travels at c away from you. At a set distance from the laser place a prism or split mirror so that the single beam of light is split into two separate beams, such that Photon A is deflected to the left at c perpendicular to the original laser beam, and Photon B is deflected perpendicular to the laser beam to the right and now travelling away from Photon A at 2c. You should observe that there is no change in the wavelength of x or to either of the deflected light beams, i.e. no blue shift to signal that Photon B travels away from Photon A at no more than c. You can test this observation using an oscilloscope that can visualise the wavelength of each of the three light beams in turn. This experiment arguably takes a wrecking ball to the speed of light c being fixed at 300,000 km/sec, and, again arguably, any publications relying upon this should be moved to the fiction aisle.

            It can instead be argued that the only conditions under which this table top experiment can occur without any perceptible change in the wavelength of the three light beams is if the speed of light c is 600,000 km/sec. And we can observe that this is so every day that our nearest star, i.e. the Sun, emits photons (Photon A) to the left at 300,000 km/sec and also in the opposite direction (Photon B) to the right travelling away from Photon A at 600,000 km/sec, and indeed every observed star in our universe simultaneously emits photons from opposing surfaces that travel away from each other at 600,000 km/sec in all conceivable directions. 

            And so in our table top experiment, it doesn’t matter in which direction the laser pen is pointed, somewhere in our universe there will be a light source, e.g. a star, emitting photons at the same time in the opposite direction, which means that, if the speed of light c is constant, our laser beam can only ever travel at ½ c (300,000 km/sec) or otherwise it would break that law, don’t you agree?

            This means that Photon A and B in almost any conceivable scenario can also travel away from each other at 600,000 km/sec without breaking that law. To sum up, the only conditions under which Photon A and B can travel away from each other at 600,000km/sec is if the actual speed of light c is also 600,000 km/sec. And so any publications where the speed of light c is given as anything other than 600,000 km/sec should be moved to the fiction section, or each equation recalculated. This observation can of course be tested. And there is at least one test that could be of immeasurable interest. If our universe has a hard edge, then it is arguably possible that somewhere along its boundary there will be at least one or more stars that abut that hard edge, either as sphere, a hemisphere or as a splodge pressed up against it. If these conditions pertain, then the working assumption is that light cannot be emitted from the star’s surface which is pressed up against the hard edge of the universe. Therefore any light emitted from these stars, which travels away from that hard edge, can travel at 600,00 km/sec, and is arguably the only light (photons) in our universe that can do so, which means that if scientists can detect this phenomenon then we should be able to chart the hard edge of our universe. And, not only that, but determine (i) whether that hard edge is flat or has a detectable topography, and (ii) the nature of space lying between that hard edge and ourselves, as we can compare and contrast how the nature of space interacts with light travelling at two distinct speeds, i.e. both 300,000 km/sec and 600,000 km/sec.

Cool, eh?

Dr. Bernard Mulholland

Editor’s observations: (i) If photons of light can travel from opposing sides of the Universe then they must either be travelling towards each other at 1,200,000 km/sec or their speed is inhibited by some as yet unidentified constant c. (ii) The evidence appears to indicate that the current constant c at 300,000 km/sec seems to be discredited. Read more on this topic in

Bernard Mulholland, The man from MENSA – 1 of 600: Mensa research (2016).




Author: Dr. Bernard Mulholland

Dr. Bernard Mulholland is a Byzantinist, archaeologist, historian and Patristics scholar with a Ph.D. in history (QUB, 2012). Bernard's publications include: Fiction: Bernard Mulholland, Nazareth Quest (2022). https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=NfWkEAAAQBAJ&pli=1 https://books.apple.com/us/book/id6445327630 https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B0B92V9VYF Non-fiction: Bernard Mulholland, The man from MENSA - 1 of 600: Mensa research (2016). https://books.apple.com/us/book/id6445329346 https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=gfWkEAAAQBAJ https://www.amazon.com/dp/1535307269 ---, The man from MENSA - 1 of the 600: Politics 1990-1995 (2016). https://books.apple.com/us/book/id6445329553 https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=j_WkEAAAQBAJ https://www.amazon.com/dp/1535324376 ---, Ratio analysis of financial KPI in the Higher Education sector: a case study (2018). https://books.apple.com/us/book/id6445320705 https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=YfWkEAAAQBAJ https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09MB99NWP ---, Early Byzantine Ireland: a survey of the archaeological evidence (2021). https://books.apple.com/us/book/id6445354716 https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=ChilEAAAQBAJ https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09MG1YZ8W ---, Navan Fort, Ireland: archaeological and palaeoecological analysis (2021). https://books.apple.com/us/book/id6445397300 https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=PhilEAAAQBAJ https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09MYXX9GM ---, The Early Byzantine Christian Church (Oxford, 2014). https://books.apple.com/us/book/the-early-byzantine-christian-church/id1023114473 ---, 'Identification of Early Byzantine Constantinopolitan, Syrian, and Roman church plans in the Levant and some possible consequences', Patristic Studies in the twenty-first century: proceedings of an international conference to mark the 50th anniversary of the International Association of Patristic Studies, ed. Brouria Bitton-Ashkelony, Theodore de Bruyn and Carol Harrison (Turnhout, 2015), 597-633. https://www.brepolsonline.net/doi/10.1484/J.BAIEP.5.107536 Mulholland, B. (2021). 'Can archaeology inform the climate change debate?' Academia Letters, Article4385. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL4385

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